Below is a list of OPDI’s membership, including their contact information and a brief and by no means extensive description of what they have to offer. We encourage you to contact them directly to learn more.
We are in the process of updating our membership list onto the website, so some groups may be missing from this list for now. Please check back regularly to see updated membership information.
Can-Voice, Consumer Survivor Community Support Services (General)
Can-Voice is a safe place for anyone who has or has ever had any mental health challenge. We are individuals who have been through the struggles, challenges, frustrations and shame that mental health issues may bring. Individuals who access any mental health service refer to themselves as a Consumer. Survivor, means we survived the mental health system.
London, ON N5W 4P3
Connect for Mental Health Inc. (General)
CONNECT for Mental Health is a not-for-profit peer support organization run by and for individuals who have been affected by mental illness. CONNECT has been providing peer support since 2007.
Our vision is to promote sustainable systems of support that enable individuals affected by mental illness to thrive and maintain wellness in the community.
London, ON N6B 1Y8
Consumer Initiative of Huron (General)
Oxford Self Help Network (General)
Oxford Self Help Network (OSHN) is a registered charity. We are a non-profit, member-driven mental health agency. We are a service that provides help and support from the vantage point of having or had, a mental illness or significant mental health challenge. We believe that by having a 'lived experience' of being a mental health consumer we can offer others support, hope and encouragement.
Woodstock, ON N4S 4H1
Patients` Council of Parkwood Institute Mental Health Care (General)
Peer Support Program - CMHA Middlesex (General)
Peer Support Program (department) employs 1 team lead, 3 coordinators, and 6 peer support workers-all individuals with lived experience
- Transitional Discharge Model at two hospitals -- inpatient groups & 1:1 intentional peer support in the community offered by trained peer support volunteers
- 1:1 formalized peer support offered from a Peer Support Worker in Crisis Services, Outreach Services (My Sisters' Place), Supportive Housing (Housing First & Women's congregate housing), Transitional Age Project in partnership with London Health Sciences, Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Addiction Services Thames Valley, and mindyourmind
- informal peer support offered in a weekly social facilitated by a Peer Support Worker
- Peer Support Group Facilitators/Co-Facilitators of several peer support and community wellness programs - see link: https://cmhamiddlesex.ca/services/program-guide/
- Department supports several OPDI interns - currently 6 placements in progress/to begin
- Client Advisory Committee in place which will be transitioning to a People With Lived Experience Advisory
- Please also see link: https://cmhamiddlesex.ca/about-cmha/
to read 2017-2018 annual report
London, ON N6B 1Y6
Phoenix Centre (General)
Psychiatric Survivors Network of Elgin (General)
We are a community of peers using our lived experiences with the mental health system to support one another in moving towards our full potential. We offer a safe and non-judgmental environment for consumer/survivors and their families to come together, support one another and build upon our skills. PSNE is a non-profit member-driven organization founded in 1991 by a handful of consumer/survivors of the mental health system. PSNE provides an effective alternative and adjunct to traditional mental health programs. Membership is free to self-identified psychiatric survivors.
St. Thomas, ON N5R3Y6
The Consumer/Survivor Development Program (General)
We provide information, education, and peer support to foster self help and networking. We offer workshops, presentations, one-to-one and group support. System navigation, self advocacy, skill development, WRAP (Wellness Recovery Action Plan) Recovery groups, and more. We also house a mental Health and Addictions Library open and free to the public
Owen Sound, ON N4k 2J1
Body Brave (Associate)
Body Brave offers peer and professional support for individuals struggling with weight, food and body image issues. Through workshops, support groups and individual counselling, we offer hope to those struggling with these devastating illnesses. Body Brave is a not-for-profit organization operating in Hamilton. We are currently in the process of developing a peer program (recovery advocates). Peers recovered from eating disorders have the power to inspire others as they journey to recovery. We have a peer advisory council that helps to ensure that have the peer voice guiding our organization.
Hamilton, ON L8M 1N5
Lambton Mental Wellness Centre (General)
Providing over 20 years of recovery-oriented mental health peer support in Sarnia-Lambton.
Peer support is a supportive relationship between people who share lived experiences. LMWC provides a safe & accepting environment where peers can offer mutual support, guidance, encouragement & hope that recovery is possible.
Lambton Mental Wellness Centre offers
two types of programming:
Peer Support Program:
On-site social recreational programming as well as daily support groups.
Lambton Family Initiative/Family Support Program:
Family support groups & NAMI family education program
Sarnia, ON N7T 5A1
Self Help & Peer Support, CMHA Waterloo Wellington (General)
Self Help & Peer Support services are offered by people for people who have experienced a mental health and/or addiction issue. Our vision is hope and support for recovery through the shared lived experience. Our services are based on the values and principles of recovery. We believe recovery is possible!
Services offered at the sites include...
• Self Help Recovery Centres which provide:
• Peer Support Groups
• Support to develop a new self-help group
• Community and self-help resources
• Facilitation skills training and/or group
• Leadership and Mentoring
• One-to-One Peer Support
We also offer:
• Advocacy Support
• Entrepreneurship Support
• Community Outreach
• Spark of Brilliance (expressive arts program)
Centre for Excellence in Peer Support (fee-for-service training, supervision, and knowledge creation on the practice of peer support)
There is no formal intake process for our services. Contact one of our sites for more information.
Achieve Mental Health Wellness & Recovery Centre (General)
The Centre operates on a recovery model built on the four mandates of peer support, advocacy, social recreation and education. Monthly member's meetings direct the monthly programming calendar of activities. Members are engaged in a variety of roles at the Centre integral for the running of various programs.
Simcoe, ON N3Y 3H1
Dunnville, ON N1A 1H6
Consumer/Survivor Initiative of Niagara (General)
A peer support group that offers education, advocacy and self-help groups for consumers of the mental health system. Self-help groups include depression/anxiety, and anger management groups. These are offered at various times and locations and are free of cost. Please call the office for more information about the group schedules and general inquiries.
Welland, ON L3B 6A4
Helping Ourselves Though Peer Support and Employment (H.O.P.E.) (General)
H.O.P.E. is an organization run by and for consumers of mental health services in Brant County. We work collaboratively with our community to help people in their recovery by providing meaningful employment, peer support, employment and advocacy. H.O.P.E receives funding through the Hamilton-Niagara-Haldimand-Brant Local Health Integration Network and donations to provide programs and services.
Brantford, ON N3T 2J3
Mental Health Rights Coalition of Hamilton (General)
At MENTAL HEALTH RIGHTS COALITION, we are dedicated to enhancing the participation and voice of consumers in the mental health system.
We are an organization run by and for people with lived experience of mental health and/or addiction issues.
Hamilton, ON L8N 3W4
Friends & Advocated Peel (General)
Friends & Advocates is a Community Adult Mental Health Organization, and has provided Social Rehabilitation services since 1986. Since the mid 1990’s funding for our services have flowed through the Central West Local Health Integration Network from the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.
Friends & Avocates continues to offer support to those who have experienced Mental/Emotional Distress resulting in Social Isolation. We provide members with opportunities to develop strong Communication, Interpersonal and Leadership Skills. We offer opportunities for members to develop their Leadership, Interpersonal and Social Skills through over 40 activities per month and training programs.
Brampton, ON L6W 2B6
Mental Health Support Network (Associate)
The Mental Health Support Network is a registered charity # 78197 3128 RR0001. We are one of Canada’s largest face-to-face, diverse mental health peer support networks with over 2000 people. We are in our 8th year working out of private space donated by St. Joseph’s Health Centre, 30 The Queensway, Toronto. We offer group mental health peer support meetings. We have had over 450 meetings. The founder, Robert Dunlop, has also offered one on one peer support sessions in the past. In the past, we have had creative expression through art programs and creative expression through writing programs, as well as social events such as picnics, hikes, karaoke, trips to the AGO, etc. All of our programs are led by mental health "peers" who have had mental health challenges in the past or are in recovery.
Toronto, ON M6K 1J6
Recovery West Drop-in Centre (General)
At Recovery West we believe that everyone in recovery from mental health issues should have support from their peers and a variety of opportunities throughout their journey in recovery. This program promotes Mental Health Recovery through groups, activities and vocational services with a focus on peer support.
Brampton, ON L6Y 4M3
Summit Housing & Outreach Programs (Associate)
Summit Housing & Outreach Programs is a charitable organization that provides a variety of housing, peer support, treatment and case management services to individuals who require mental health supports in Halton Region. We have a part-time peer worker on our ACT Team. A full-time peer offers one-on-one support to those in our supportive housing program. We have a peer coordinated social recreational program that runs of full roster of activities led by peer volunteers.
Oakville, ON L6L 6L7
Burlington, ON L7R 4B7
T.E.A.C.H (Teach, Empower, Advocate for Community Health) (General)
A-Way Express (General)
We are courier service that employs who are survivors of mental health challenges in positions in parts of the business. We do peer support every day helping one another with issues.
Toronto, ON M4C 1K3
Fresh Start Cleaning and Maintenance (General)
Fresh Start Cleaning and Maintenance is dedicated to providing part-time to full-time permanent employment for consumer/survivors of the mental health system.
Toronto, ON M6P 2A6
Habitat Services (Associate)
“Habitat Services strives to improve the quality of housing for tenants marginalized by poverty and their mental health status by contracting with landlords and providing recovery based support”.
Toronto, ON M6R 3A9
We offer mental health and addiction programs and offer many community programs to reduce social isolation and build a community of peers. We have housed more than 2,500 people and served over 80,000 meals. We train participants in basic and transferable work skills and we employ them in part time casual jobs. We offer a comprehensive basket of services. After 40 years, we cover the entire GTA. We advocate and educate to address homelessness. We currently house 500 individuals, including 60 families. Our goal is to ensure that those most at risk of homelessness, never again face life on the streets. Each of our teams has a Mental Health Recovery worker and we also offer a daily drop in at our 805 Bloor Street location.
Toronto, ON M6P 1A9
Toronto, ON M5A 3W2
Mood Disorders Association of Ontario (Associate)
The Mood Disorders Association of Ontario offers free support and recovery programs to people across Ontario living with depression, anxiety or bipolar disorder. We provide drop-in peer support groups, recovery programs, family and youth clinical support, early intervention for mood disorders and psychosis and online tools focused on wellness and recovery.
Toronto, ON M4R1A1
Parkdale Activity-Recreation Centre (PARC) (Associate)
The true meaning of PARC is reflected in our mission: “A community where people rebuild their lives.”
PARC works with members on individual issues of poverty, mental health, addictions, homelessness and food security. Members access services and develop relationships with our staff and one another through four core areas of operation: a drop-in centre, a peer-support program, an outreach program and supportive housing.
The idea of PARC was born in 1977 when a group of volunteers observed the large number of adults living in Parkdale rooming houses and boarding homes. Many were survivors of the psychiatric system, had little money, few family contacts and no real place to go and connect with peers.
The simple act of walking through our doors is what makes a person a PARC member. Choosing to give back, create and grow is how PARC members contribute and help build our community.
Within a shifting urban landscape, PARC also acts as a hub and meeting place for various agencies, enterprises and partners who strive to create lasting social change in Parkdale and beyond.
Toronto, ON M6R 1A3
Bayview Community Services (Associate)
Willowdale, ON M2J 4V6
Krasman Centre (General)
Krasman Centre is a consumer/survivor initiative for psychiatric consumer/survivors, their friends and family members. We work collaboratively with consumer/survivors and families to improve lives through information, networking, self-help, mutual support, and partnership. All programs and services, including volunteer-delivered programs, are delivered by people who identify as having direct personal experience of mental health extremes and/or homelessness and/or people who identify as psychiatric consumer/survivors as part of our peer support philosophy. Programs and services include: peer support drop-in centres, Mobile Peer Support Outreach, Family Support Program, WRAPhub, ODSP Application Support, Housing to Health Program, Central LHIN Consumer/Survivor Network, Peer Navigators in Hospital Emergency Departments Program, Warm Line and Peer Crisis Support Services.
Richmond Hill, ON L4C 1T7
Alliston, ON L9R 1J3
North York General Hospital Participants' Council (General)
The Participants' Council at North York General Hospital is a group of individuals with personal lived experience of mental illness and/or addiction, elected by their peers who have used our hospital's mental health services. Its members include inpatients, former patients and outpatients.
The council strives to work in partnership with staff, community service providers and other consumer/ survivor organizations to ensure the best possible quality of life and standard of care is available to psychiatric survivors, both in the hospital setting and out in the community.
Through advocacy initiatives, the Participants' Council is able to provide a voice and address the issues of critical importance to people living with mental illness and addiction.
The Participants' Council offers a number of initiatives including peer advocacy, one-on-one peer support and peer counselling, peer-to-peer recovery educations groups including WRAP (Wellness Recovery Action Plan) and Pathways to Recovery
North York, ON
Durham Mental Health Services (General)
DURHAM MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES believes that individuals with lived experience of mental illness can vitally contribute to the recovery process for people who are experiencing mental health problems.
The client/peer support relationship can promote resilience and help buffer stressors or adversity. Clients benefit from the empathy and encouragement that a person who has lived their struggles can offer. It is support “by peers for peers” – a positive, inspiring, and equal relationship that promotes health, self-acceptance, and progress towards recovery.
DHMS Consumer Survivor Initiatives can offer:
◾Assistance setting recovery goals
◾Life-skills training and coaching
◾Social networking and support
◾Linkage to services
Our Peer Support Specialists also work in the community to raise awareness of mental illness and stigma, provide education, and coordinate Peer Support programming with other organizations. In this capacity, DMHS is the lead agency in the Consumer Survivor Initiative Network for the Central East LHIN.
DMHS Consumer Survivor Initiatives also offers:
◾Peer Support program development
DMHS is a proud sponsor of the consumer advocacy group V.A.S.E. – Voices Against Stigma Everywhere.
Whitby, ON L1A4K8
Kawartha Lakes Reach for Recovery (General)
My Best Self (Associate)
Offering a monthy support group for parents and caregivers of children suffering anxiety, depression and mental health issues. We also offer workshops for parents and children on positive thinking, coping skills and stratagies.
Peterborough, ON k9j 0h2
Peer Support South East Ontario (General)
Peer Support, Recovery and Being Well
Peer Support is funded by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care through the South East Local Health Integration Network. Our agency provides support and services within South East Ontario to people who are experiencing addiction and/or Mental Health issues and seeking Peer Support as a ways and means of managing and working toward being well. All of our staff are Certified in the practices and delivery of Peer Support as per the OPDI Peer Support CORE ESSENTIAL PROGRAM and Certified Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) Facilitators through the Copeland Centre for Wellness and Recovery.
Belleville, ON K8N 5M5
A.P.P.L.E. (A Post Psychiatric Leisure Experience) (General)
A.P.P.L.E is a non-profit organization. Founded in 1985, A.P.P.L.E is Ottawa's oldest consumer-survivor initiative. Ran by and for people who have experienced mental heath challenges. We focus on providing all sorts of leisure and recreational opportunities with the goal of helping consumer-survivors make new friends and have fun.
A.P.P.L.E strives to enhance the quality of life of our members by offering mutual support at our drop-in, affordable recreational activities both at A.P.P.L.E and in the community. We strive to offer a warm supportive and safe atmosphere for our members, all of whom have emotional or psychiatric challenges. A.P.P.L.E tries to prevent hospitalization through encouraging membership participation, including volunteer work and employment, in the operations of our organization.
Ottawa, ON K1R 6H5
Champlain Peer Network (CPN) (General)
The CPN represents all Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded Consumer/Survivor Initiatives across Champlain, and has peer support worker representatives who are working in other areas of the mental health system.
Currently the CPN provides training for Consumer/Survivor Initiatives and associated peer support workers across the Champlain region.
Ottawa, ON K1R 7M1
Mental Health Support Project (General)
Mental Health Support Project (MHSP) is a mental health peer support and wellness drop in centre. We provide a welcoming and inclusive environment serving adults 18+ in finding resources, offering activities and providing social opportunities for people with mental health challenges. Our values are recovery based and member involvement is supported and valued.
By promoting and modeling a recovery based approach to living we offer hope, encouragement & the shared experience that everyone can build capacities to improve their quality of life.
You don't have to be alone! No referral is needed.
Smiths Falls, ON K7A 5K9
Mood Dissorders Ottawa Mutual Support Group (MDO) (General)
Mood Disorders Ottawa Mutual Support Group (MDO) is a peer-run volunteer organization. We, members of MDO and individuals living with a mood disorder, our families and friends, engage in mutual support to improve the quality of our lives and to work at creating opportunities to reconnect with self and others. Together we aim to offer a beacon of hope that people living with mental health challenges can and do live well.
To these ends, MDO provides resources, programs, support groups, social and recreational activities for our members and their families and friends.
Ottawa, ON K1H 8K7
Psychiatric Survivors of Ottawa (General)
We are a community of peers using our lived experiences with the mental health system to support one another in moving towards our full potential.
We offer a safe and non-judgmental environment for consumer/survivors and their families to come together, support one another and build upon our skills. PSO is a non-profit member-driven organization founded in 1991 by a handful of consumer/survivors of the mental health system.
We offer peer and family peer support, public education, volunteer opportunities, connecting to other community services and much more to people experiencing mental health challenges and their families. But most of all we promote hope, recovery and wellness and create a sense of community.
Ottawa, ON K1R 7M1
Somerset West Community Health Centre (Associate)
As a Community Health Centre offering a spectrum of Harm Reduction services, we have recently(within the last year) started offering paid/employment for peer support within some of our services.
There are 15 regularly scheduled relief staff and 2 part-time staff working in outreach capacities, community engagement and in our Supervised Consumption Service.
We have also been doing, for over a decade, peer support in a variety of ways in a volunteer capacity(honorarium).
Ottawa, ON K1R 6S3
Patient/Client & Family Council (General)
The Patient Council is a group of mental health consumers who represent a membership made up of inpatients, outpatients, and former patients living in the area served by St. Joseph’s Mental Health Care Program.
The Patient Council strives to work in partnership with professional/clinical caregivers to ensure the best possible quality of life and standard of care is available to people served by Parkwood Institute Mental Health Care and Southwest Centre, both in the hospital setting and in the community.
The Patient Council is made up of general members that generously volunteer their time, skills, and lived experience to serve their peers during various social, educational and peer support activities. The Patient Council also has representatives who sit on various hospital committees and projects, to ensure the voice of the patient is heard throughout the organization.
London, ON N6A 4V2
Simcoe Peer Support for Mental Health and Addictions (General)
Our mission is to provide and promote wellness and recovery for people that have experienced or are experiencing mental health and or addiction issues. CSP accomplishes this through peer-support, advocacy, self help and building partnerships within our Community.
We are a self help peer support and resource center for people who have or are experiencing mental health and addiction issues, including Substance and Alcohol abuse.
collingwood, ON L9Y 3L6
Algoma Consumer Survivor Network (General)
The Algoma Consumer Survivor Network offers education and awareness activities about mental health issues from a consumer's perspective to the residents of Algoma. Also offered are support, advocacy, skill development, networking and referral. The program operates in Sault Ste. Marie, Elliot Lake, Blind River, and Wawa. Model of service is peer support.
Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 1Z1
Council of Consumer/Survivor and Family Initiatives (COI) (General)
-peer knowledge and support to individuals living with mental health issues as consumers/survivors and/or as family members.
-peer-driven and peer-guided consumer/survivor initiatives and family initiatives in Muskoka-Parry Sound area
-community education and awareness on mental health issues
Initiative activities may include:
-peer support groups
-recovery and wellness education (i.e. Wellness Recovery Action Plan)
-skill development (i.e. social skills, communication skills)
-resources and advocacy (i.e. information and support on navigating the mental health system)
-social recreation (i.e. bowling)
Sundridge, ON P0A 1Z0
Bracebridge, ON P1L 1S3
Lived Experience & Recovery Network (General)
Lived Experience & Recovery Network (LERN) is a networking body linking, supporting and educating all mental health consumer and family, organizations in the northeast region. LERN supports, empowers and educates society: people with lived experience of mental health and/or addiction services, family members & friends, community, professionals and society around the issues relevant to mental health, mental illness and mental wellness. We provide personal and professional development, organizational development and knowledge exchange & support.
Temagami, ON P0H 2H0
Northern Initiative for Social Action (NISA) (General)
NISA/Northern Initiative for Social Action is an organization run by and for consumers of mental health services. We develop occupational skills, nurture self-confidence and provide resources for recovery by creating opportunities for participants to contribute to their own well-being and that of their community.
All staff, volunteers and members are people with lived experience of mental illness. We are a member-driven initiative, offering meaningful and useful programs, providing a setting for active social recovery rather than passive dependence on community services. Our involvement at NISA allows us to liberate ourselves from the stigma and discrimination we often face, as a result of our mental health diagnoses.
Being, belonging, becoming, for all mental health consumers.
Sudbury, ON P3C 5B4
Northern Star (General)
Northern Star consumer survivor initiative is recognized as a valuable and effective self-help and peer support program. The program offers two drop-in centers throughout the district, self-help groups dealing with issues like emotions, coping skills, assertiveness training and life skills. Social recreational activities such as crafts, community kitchen, birthday celebrations, and member meetings. Trained volunteer hosts operate a drop-in center and provide peer support. Model of service is recovery and peer support.
New Liskeard, ON P0J 1P0
People for Equal Partnership in Mental Health (PEP) (General)
People for Equal Partnership in Mental Health Nipissing (PEP) is a not for profit, charitable organization offering peer support, self-help groups, social, educational and recreational activities to individuals with mental health and addiction. PEP is funded by the North East LHIN and has been offering these services in the Nipissing District for the past 26 ½ years.
We promote complete and full understanding of mental health issues in the community. The goals are to reduce isolation and stigma to increase accessibility, support reintegration and promote participation. PEP provides individuals with mental health concerns with information about the range of services and how to access of services available in the community. In collaboration with local and regional partners, PEP provides opportunities for personal development and ensures our members’ voices are heard by those who influence change. We are networking with other groups and organizations in the community to work together to bring the best possible support to the individuals with mental health concerns. PEP offers a variety of programs, peer support, life skills, educational, awareness, social and recreational programs. Outreach to hospital, boarding homes, Home for Special Care and visits to the local correctional facility. Monthly calendar of events are published on PEP’s Facebook page. High-speed internet and telephone is available for members to use.
North Bay, ON P1B 1X1
Timmins Consumer Survivors Network Inc. (General)
Offers a self-help peer support drop-in centre
Provides peer support to individuals and their families who are experiencing or have previously experienced mental health difficulties
Provides public education and information to the community, and mental health providers regarding peer support, self-help and other issues relevant to mental health and mental illness
True Self Debwewendizwin Program (General)
True Self adopts an Indigenous wholistic healing approach in workshops, talking/healing circles and one on one peer support, providing individuals with the tools and knowledge needed to reduce vulnerability to poverty and abuse. We offer men and women who have experienced, or who are at risk of experiencing violence, a wholistic approach to healing, employment and training supports. Our environment is one which promotes complete mental wellness and individual empowerment and personal responsibility to consider, explore, pursue and achieve higher levels of training, education, or employment on the journey to economic independence.
North Bay, ON P1B1B2
District Peer Support Program (General)
We have four drop in centers for individuals with lived experience and family members located in Fort Frances, Dryden, Kenora and Red Lake. We also offer outreach programs in most of the communities. In Fort Frances & Kenora we offer family supports (1-on-1 peer support for family members as well as education series). In Kenora we have a forensic peer support worker that goes to the recovery homes and the schedule one to provide weekly peer support groups, as well as proving outreach to others currently incarcerated or at risk of. The activities in each community are different, based on that individual community needs. Please visit our website at www.cmhaff.ca for more details on what is offered in each community.
Fort Frances, ON P9A3M8
Kenora/Dryden/Red Lake, ON p9n3x5
North Western Ontario Peer Council (Associate)
Provides peer support for the day to day needs of its members with a Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Strength Based Approach
Provides socialization opportunities for members to aid in their recovery
Provides mental health education to members and mental health awareness to people in the community
Directs members in finding appropriate personnel to meet their needs
Develops and maintains communication with all existing persons involved with members' care, as requested by members
Thunder Bay, ON ON P7B 5G4
Ontario Association of Patient Councils (General)
OAPC is a council of patient/ client/ participant councils - Our vision is to support those with lived experience in Mental Health and Addictions to advocate on behalf of themselves as councils and individuals to affect positive change in the Mental Health System. The OAPC supports it's member councils by networking, information sharing and supporting the positions of each council as it relates to the treatment of Mental Health Issues and those living with these conditions.
Thunder Bay, ON P7A 5G4
People Advocate for Change Through Empowerment (P.A.C.E.) (General)
Thunder Bay, ON P7A 4B6